Gastrointestinal diseases

A comprehensive study of disorders and problems affecting digestion and the function of the digestive organs

Gastrointestinal diseases are a wide group of disorders and problems that affect the digestive process and the health of the digestive system in general. These diseases can be diverse and include problems with the intestines, stomach, liver, pancreas, and other important organs.

On this page, we will provide you with comprehensive information about digestive diseases, from their causes and symptoms to available treatment options. We aim to educate the reader about the importance of digestive health and how to take care of it.

If you suffer from digestive problems or are looking for information on how to prevent these diseases, this page will be a useful source of knowledge and guidance. Do not hesitate to contact us if you have any questions or need more information about diseases of the digestive system.


  • An endoscope (a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera) is inserted down your throat by your doctor to examine the inside of your esophagus and stomach and look for inflammation.

    The length and flexibility of the endoscope varies depending on the area of the body that the doctor needs to view.

    Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is crucial in removing flat or laterally spreading polyps, even those larger than 1 cm. However, the treatment is now widely applicable to almost all non-invasive, large, flat polyps of the colon.


The esophagus, stomach, and duodenum are examined during gastroscopy (also known as endoscopy) using a flexible telescope called a gastroscope.

When necessary, some simple operations can also be performed while examining the patient. These practices can include

Taking a small sample of tissue (biopsy)
Stop ulcer bleeding
Removal of polyps


A colonoscopy is a test performed to check for abnormalities in the large intestine (colon) and rectum, such as enlarged and irritated tissue, polyps or cancer.

A long, flexible tube called a colonoscope is inserted into the rectum during a colonoscopy. The doctor can see the entire interior of the colon thanks to a small video camera at the tip of the tube.

A colonoscopy can help your doctor:

Check for gastrointestinal signs and symptoms
Colon cancer screening
Look for polyps
Removal of polyps

Irritable bowel syndrome

Disturbing or painful abdominal symptoms may be a sign of irritable bowel syndrome, or irritable bowel syndrome. Symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome can include bloating, gas, constipation, and diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome does not harm the digestive system and does not increase the risk of colon cancer. By changing your diet and way of life, you can control your symptoms frequently.

An IBS treatment plan designed by your doctor to meet your needs Diet and lifestyle modifications are often used as alternatives to treatment

Irritable bowel disease

Inflammatory bowel disease includes Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. These are autoimmune diseases, and pre-cancerous conditions

  • Colonoscopy: Using a small, flexible, lighted tube with a camera at the end, this exam allows your doctor to see your entire colon. Small tissue samples (biopsies) may be collected during the procedure for laboratory examination. The only way to distinguish IBD from other types of inflammation is through a biopsy.
    Upper endoscopy: Your health care professional will examine your esophagus, stomach, and first part of the small intestine (duodenum) during this procedure. Although it is uncommon for these areas to be affected by Crohn’s disease, this test may be suggested if you are experiencing upper abdominal discomfort, nausea, or vomiting.


A condition that causes inflammation of the stomach lining (mucous membrane), leading to abdominal pain, indigestion (indigestion), bloating, and nausea. It has the potential to cause additional problems. Gastritis can appear suddenly (acute) or gradually (chronic).

Upper endoscopy: Your doctor examines your stomach using an endoscope (a long, thin tube with a camera). The endoscope is inserted into your esophagus, which connects your mouth to your stomach. Upper endoscopy allows the doctor to examine the lining of your stomach.

Medications and dietary changes can help reduce stomach acidity and relieve symptoms of gastritis.

Peptic ulcer disease

A condition that occurs when open ulcers or ulcers appear in the stomach or the first section of the small intestine. Bacterial infections destroy the protective lining of the digestive tract in many cases of peptic ulcer disease. People who take painkillers a lot are more likely to develop ulcers.

Endoscopy: To examine the upper digestive tract, your doctor may use a scope (endoscopy). A hollow tube (endoscope) with a lens is passed down your neck into your esophagus, stomach and small intestine during endoscopy. Your doctor examines the ulcer using an endoscope. This procedure is performed under anesthesia.

Gastric and esophageal regurgitation and hiatal hernia

Upper endoscopy A small, flexible tube called an endoscope is inserted down your throat by your doctor to examine the inside of your esophagus and stomach and look for inflammation.

  • pharmaceutical

    Your doctor can suggest some medications if you frequently suffer from heartburn and acid reflux.


    Hiatal hernias may sometimes need surgery. Surgery is often reserved for patients who have not found relief from heartburn and acid reflux medications, or who have problems including severe inflammation or esophageal constriction.

Gastroesophageal reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux disease develops when stomach acid backs up into the tube that regularly connects your mouth to your stomach (esophagus). Acid reflux (backwash) can irritate the lining of the esophagus.

Upper endoscopy: The doctor inserts an endoscope (a thin, flexible tube equipped with a light and camera) down your throat. Your doctor can see inside your stomach and esophagus with the help of an endoscope.

Your doctor will likely advise you to start with lifestyle changes and over-the-counter medications. If you don’t feel better after a few weeks, your doctor may suggest a prescription and more tests.


Esophageal dysphagia may be caused by esophageal motility problems, esophagitis, or mechanical stricture. All this is usually caused by blockage or irritation. A surgical procedure is usually helpful.

Endoscopy: A procedure when a doctor looks into the esophagus with a camera. If they detect something they think is cancer, they will do a biopsy.

  • Drug treatment
    Endoscopic intervention


A type of chronic indigestion called functional indigestion causes stomach pain, a feeling of fullness, or bloating during and after meals. When there is no obvious cause for your symptoms, diabetes is diagnosed. There are many treatment options, but no single approach is effective for everyone.

Endoscopy: A procedure when a doctor looks into the esophagus with a camera. If they detect something they think is cancer, they will do a biopsy.

  • Antibiotics will be used to treat the infection first if you test positive for a bacterial infection.
    If functional dyspepsia persists and no other underlying cause can be identified, the remaining therapeutic choices focus on symptom management.

Diarrhea, malabsorption and celiac disease

  • A common indicator of malabsorption, which occurs when your digestive system is unable to absorb nutrients as efficiently as it should.
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder in which your immune system reacts abnormally to gluten. When you have celiac disease, eating foods containing gluten damages the small intestine and prevents it from absorbing nutrients from food. Celiac disease can cause diarrhea, weight loss, fatigue, bloating, and anemia (low red blood cell count).

Diagnosing chronic diarrhea requires determining its causes:

Diarrhea that lasts more than two weeks is a sign of a serious condition and should be treated by your doctor. It can be a symptom of many different medical conditions, including:

Infectious diseases (such as bacterial or parasitic infections)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
Malabsorption diseases such as celiac disease.

  • Medications, diet program, or other methods to relieve diarrhea symptoms.
    Surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause of your condition.
    In some people with celiac disease, symptoms may improve with a gluten-free diet.


Constipation occurs when stool is difficult to eliminate, and bowel movement is reduced. The most common causes are changes in diet or habits, lack of adequate fiber intake, or both. If you experience severe pain, blood in your stool, or constipation that lasts more than three weeks, you should see your doctor.

Your doctor may order a variety of tests and treatments. Depending on your symptoms, medical history, and general health, your doctor may decide which one to prescribe for you.

  • Laboratory examination: Blood samples show evidence of hypothyroidism, anemia, and diabetes. A stool sample is examined for indicators of inflammation, infection, and malignancy.
    Colonoscopy: A colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy may be performed, which involves using a scope to see inside the colon. Any polyps discovered during this treatment will be removed, and a small tissue sample (biopsy) may be obtained to detect cancer or other problems.

Food and lifestyle changes that can improve the passage of stool through the intestines are often the first step in treating persistent constipation. Your doctor can suggest medications or surgery if these adjustments don’t work.

Gastrointestinal bleeding

The doctor will perform a physical examination, obtain a medical history, including history of previous bleeding, and may order tests, such as:

Blood test: A complete blood count, a test to determine how quickly the blood clots, a platelet count, and liver function tests can all be necessary.
Stool test: Stool may be examined to help determine the origin of occult bleeding.
Upper endoscopy: This procedure allows your doctor to examine your upper digestive tract using a small camera attached to the end of a long tube inserted through your mouth.

Fatty liver (due to obesity or alcohol)

Excess fat storage in the liver leads to a typical disease known as fatty liver disease. Most individuals have no symptoms, and do not have any major problems. However, it can sometimes lead to liver damage. The good news is that lifestyle modifications may often prevent or even correct fatty liver disease.

Your doctor can identify fatty liver disease as a first because it often has no symptoms. A red flag may be raised by high levels of liver enzymes that show up in a blood test for another disease. Elevated liver enzymes are a sign of liver damage. Your doctor may prescribe the following to make a diagnosis:

To get a picture of the liver, use ultrasound or computed tomography (CT).
To evaluate the progress of liver disease, a biopsy (tissue sample) of the liver is performed.
To determine the amount of fat and scar tissue in the liver, specialized ultrasound is sometimes used instead of a liver biopsy.

Fatty liver can experience four stages:

Simple liver steatosis: An excessive amount of fat has accumulated in the liver. If it does not get worse, simple fatty liver is often safe.
Steatohepatitis: There is inflammation of the liver as well as excess fat.
Fibrosis: Scarring has now developed in the liver due to ongoing inflammation. However, the liver can still function normally.
Cirrhosis: Extensive scarring of the liver hampers the liver’s ability to function. This is the most dangerous stage and cannot be reversed.

Viral hepatitis (A, B, C, D)

The following individuals are at greater risk of contracting viral hepatitis:

Professionals in the healthcare industry
Sanitation and water treatment workers
Intravenous drug users
People infected with HIV
Receiving blood clotting factors by hemophilia patients
Hepatitis is currently rarely caused by blood transfusions, which have historically been a common means of transmitting viral hepatitis.

Blood tests: Patients with hepatitis may be evaluated using any of three blood tests: liver enzymes, hepatitis virus antibodies, and viral proteins or genetic material (DNA or RNA).

Acute viral hepatitis and chronic viral hepatitis require distinct treatments. To treat acute viral hepatitis, patients should relax, treat their symptoms, and continue to drink adequate fluids. Chronic viral hepatitis is treated with antiviral medications and preventive measures to stop further liver damage.

Autoimmune hepatitis

Esophageal dysphagia may be caused by esophageal motility problems, esophagitis, or mechanical stricture. All this is usually caused by blockage or irritation. A surgical procedure is usually helpful.

  • Antibody testing via blood test: Your blood can help differentiate between viral diseases and other diseases with similar symptoms, as well as autoimmune hepatitis. An antibody test can help you determine which type of autoimmune hepatitis you have.
    Liver biopsy: To confirm the diagnosis and ascertain the type and extent of liver injury, doctors perform a liver biopsy. A small incision in your skin is used to insert a thin needle into your liver and remove a small amount of liver tissue. The sample is later delivered to a laboratory for evaluation.

The doctor will prescribe medication if autoimmune hepatitis is identified to prevent antibody invasion and repair the damaged liver.

Metabolic liver disease

A disorder known as metabolic liver disease occurs when regular chemical processes in the body are disturbed. When this happens, the body either has an excess of some substances or a deficiency of others that are essential for health.

It requires a comprehensive evaluation with the aim of identifying underlying metabolic problems and any additional variables that worsen the condition, as well as determining the stage of the disease and risk of progression. It would be worthwhile to move forward with tailored indications related to treatment modality and controls over time based on the results of this evaluation.

Early detection of colon cancer

Regular screening is the best way to prevent the spread of colorectal cancer. You can get screened for colon cancer even if you don’t have symptoms. When colorectal cancer is discovered to be the cause, symptoms often do not begin to appear until the cancer has spread or advanced. The only way to remove dangerous polyps and stop subsequent problems is through early diagnosis.

Examination of the colon from the inside with an endoscope (colonoscopy). A long, thin, flexible tube connected to a camera and monitor that allows the colonoscopy to see the entire colon and rectum. Your doctor may insert surgical instruments through the tube to take tissue samples (biopsies) for analysis.

Acute pancreatitis, cholecystitis and gallstones

  • تحاليل الدم: إنزيمات البنكرياس ، ووظائف الكلى ، وإنزيمات الكبد.
  • الموجات فوق الصوتية للبطن: للبحث عن حصوات المرارة والتهاب البنكرياس ، حتى تتمكن من الكشف عن سبب التهاب البنكرياس الحاد.

من المحتمل أن يُجري طبيبك فحصًا جسديًا ويراجع تاريخك الطبي لتحديد ما إذا كنت مصابًا بالتهاب المرارة.

يتم تشخيص التهاب المرارة باستخدام العديد من الإجراءات والاختبارات ، مثل:

  • فحوصات التصوير التي تظهر المرارة. مثل التصوير بالموجات فوق الصوتية للبطن ، أو الموجات فوق الصوتية بالمنظار ، أو الأشعة المقطعية ، أو التصوير بالرنين المغناطيسي للقنوات الصفراوية (MRCP).

قد تظهر في هذه الصور القنوات الصفراوية وحصوات المرارة أو مؤشرات التهاب المرارة.

  • تشخيص التنظير بالموجات فوق الصوتية للتحقق من وجود التهاب وانسداد في القناة البنكرياسية أو القناة الصفراوية.

Treating obesity with medications and through endoscopy

Fast recovery time is one of the benefits of endoscopic procedures. In addition, endoscopic procedures are less uncomfortable than traditional surgeries, do not leave scars on the abdomen, and promote a faster return to normal daily activities.

Laparoscopic weight loss therapy is an option for some people with a low body mass index (BMI) who cannot be candidates for bariatric surgery. As a result, many people with obesity find great benefit from these broad-spectrum treatments.

Many endoscopic techniques are reversible. It may serve as a catalyst to help patients with their first weight loss and make it easier for them to continue living a healthier lifestyle.

Gastric balloon insertion by endoscopy

Gastric balloon is performed in the endoscopy unit as an outpatient procedure. You will be anesthetized for this procedure. During the procedure, your doctor inserts a thin tube (catheter) loaded with an intragastric balloon through your throat and into your stomach.

This procedure is to manage obesity (reduce 15-20 kg minimum)

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